While having adequate working capital is essential for SMEs, the disadvantages of excessive working capital warrants exploration.

Having an abundance of working capital results in unused funds that don’t generate profits for the business, thereby preventing the business from achieving a satisfactory return on its investments.

In this article, we’ll delve into the often-overlooked disadvantages of excessive working capital for SMEs.

What is working capital?

Working capital is the lifeblood that keeps a business’s operations running smoothly. It’s the financial fuel that ensures a business can meet its day-to-day obligations and seize opportunities when they arise.

Imagine it as the cash readily available to cover immediate expenses like paying suppliers, salaries, utility bills, and handling unforeseen emergencies. It’s also the funds available to stock up on inventory or invest in growth initiatives.

Having a healthy working capital balance means a business is in a strong position to navigate financial ups and downs, maintain a positive cash flow, and keep the business agile.

Importance of working capital management for SMEs

Working capital management is of paramount importance for SMEs for several compelling reasons:

1. Liquidity management: SMEs often have limited access to external funding sources. Effective working capital management ensures that SMEs have sufficient liquidity to cover their day-to-day operational expenses, such as paying suppliers, salaries, and utility bills. This liquidity cushion helps prevent cash flow crises that could disrupt business operations.

2. Mitigating seasonal fluctuations: Many SMEs in India are susceptible to seasonal fluctuations in demand. Efficient working capital management helps them prepare for lean periods by setting aside funds during peak seasons to cover expenses, ensuring business continuity.

3. Enhancing creditworthiness: Maintaining a healthy working capital position improves an SME’s creditworthiness. Lenders are more likely to extend credit and offer favourable terms to businesses that demonstrate the ability to meet their financial obligations promptly.

4. Compliance and tax planning: By efficiently managing receivables and payables, SMEs can optimise their tax liabilities, reducing the burden of taxation.

5. Long-term sustainability: Effective working capital management contributes to the long-term sustainability of SMEs. It ensures that the business can operate efficiently, meet its financial obligations, and seize opportunities for growth, ultimately positioning the SME for success in the competitive Indian market.

Disadvantages of excessive working capital for SMEs

Let’s break down the disadvantages of excessive working capital with some examples:

(i) Accumulation of unnecessary raw materials and components

Imagine a small manufacturing company that produces custom furniture. To meet customer demand and ensure a smooth production process, they typically maintain a buffer stock of wood, fabric, and other materials. This buffer allows them to respond quickly to orders and prevent delays.

However, when the business experiences a period of exceptionally high profits, they decide to significantly increase their raw material stockpiles as a precaution.

Over time, this well-intentioned decision leads to the excessive accumulation of raw materials, far beyond what the business actually needs for its regular operations.

The disadvantages of this excessive accumulation is that valuable financial resources are tied up in excess inventory, funds that could have been utilised for other critical purposes such as investing in new machinery, expanding their product line, or marketing efforts.

(ii) Locking up of excess capital

Excessive working capital often results in cash being tied up in unproductive areas of the business. This idle capital could be deployed more effectively to generate returns or fund growth initiatives. SMEs, in particular, need to be agile and efficient with their resources.

Imagine a boutique clothing store that experiences a successful holiday season. The business owner decides to maintain a significantly higher level of working capital to ensure they can handle any unexpected expenses or fluctuations in customer demand.

However, this idle cash hinders ambitious growth plans like expanding product lines, renovating the store, or investing in e-commerce.

(iii) Increased risk of bad debt and reduced collection periods

With ample working capital, SMEs may become less stringent in assessing the creditworthiness of customers. This leniency can lead to an increased risk of bad debts. Furthermore, having too much working capital may result in shorter collection periods, affecting cash flow and liquidity.

(iv) Reduced profits

Surprisingly, having excessive working capital can actually lead to reduced profits. This is because the cost of maintaining surplus inventory and financing excess working capital can erode profitability. The funds that could have been used to invest in revenue-generating opportunities are instead tied up in non-income generating assets.

Causes and effects of inadequate working capital

While we’ve explored the disadvantages of excess working capital, it’s important to note the consequences of having insufficient working capital:

(i) Inability to buy in bulk

Inadequate working capital restricts an SME’s ability to make bulk purchases, missing out on potential cost savings.

(ii) Hindered implementation of operating plans

Without enough working capital, SMEs may struggle to execute their operational strategies effectively, hindering their ability to achieve profit targets.

(iii) Inefficient use of fixed assets

Shortages in working capital can lead to inefficient utilisation of fixed assets, reducing their potential returns.

(iv) Diminished rate of return

The rate of return on investments tends to decline when a business faces a shortage of working capital, limiting growth opportunities.

(v) Decreased overall operational efficiency

Insufficient working capital can hamper overall business operations, making it challenging to meet obligations and seize opportunities.

Key takeaways: disadvantages of excessive working capital

  • Accumulating unnecessary raw materials and components can tie up resources.
  • Locking up excess capital in unproductive areas hinders investment opportunities.
  • Increased risk of bad debts and shorter collection periods can impact cash flow.
  • Paradoxically, excessive working capital can lead to reduced profits due to higher costs and missed investment opportunities.

Looking for working capital for your business?

At Razorpay, we understand the importance of maintaining a balanced working capital while ensuring your business has the necessary financial resources to thrive. That’s why we offer a tailored solution: Razorpay Line of Credit.

Razorpay Line of CreditDesigned with the unique needs of SMEs in mind, Line of Credit provides flexible access to funds, allowing you to manage your working capital effectively. Whether it’s seizing growth opportunities, optimising inventory, or addressing short-term cash flow challenges, our Line of Credit is here to support your business’s financial stability and success.



Ashmita Roy is an Assistant Marketing Manager at Razorpay. When she’s not working, you can find her strumming her guitar or writing poetry. Dislikes writing about herself in third person, but can be convinced to do so via pizza or cheesecakes.

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